Diabetes
  Influenza
 
 
 
 
 
Previously named "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM), either obesity-related diabetes or adult-onset diabetes
A type of metabolic disorder primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia
Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders
Used to be found mostly in adults aged above 45, but is now increasingly appearing in children and adolescents, probably due to rising rates of obesity in these age groups
Unlike Type 1 diabetes, there is little tendency toward ketoacidosis in Type 2 diabetes

 
Symptoms top
 
Symptoms may not appear in all people with Type 2 diabetes, especially in the early stages of the illness. The followings are some possible symptoms:
  Excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger
  Unexplained weight loss, fatigue or a feeling of being "run down" and tired
  Rapid breathing, blurred vision, dry, itchy skin
  Headache, tingling or burning pain in the feet, legs, hands or other parts of the body
  High blood pressure, mood swings, irritability, depression
  Frequent or recurring infections, such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections and skin infections
  Slow healing of cuts and bruises
The signs of Type 2 diabetes may be gradual and more insidious. Usually, the first symptoms that people with undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes experience are those from complications of the disease, such as blurry vision (retinopathy) or foot pain (neuropathy).

 

 
Causes and Risk Factors top
 
  Heredity (strong cause): Having a parent or sibling with Type 2 diabetes
  Overweight or obesity. Having a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or more
  Lowered physical activity: Living a sedentary lifestyle (i.e. doing exercise less than three times a week) and unhealthy diets
  Hypertension. High blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher
  Poor cholesterol profile. HDL cholesterol ("good" cholesterol) levels of 35 or lower and/or triglyceride levels of 250 or higher
  A history of gestational diabetes, or having at least one baby weighing more than 9 pounds at birth
  Having diagnosed prediabetes
  Being an older adult. Approximately 18.4% of Americans over the age of 65 have Type 2 diabetes
  Ethnicity. Being of African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Pacific Islander or Latino American descent
  Other potential causes include chronic stress, gene mutations and low birth weight (and associated fetal malnourishment)

 

 
Prevention top
 
  Healthy Diet
  Consume abundant vegetables and fruits from maximum variety, especially non-starchy vegetables such as spinach, carrots or broccoli in meals.
  Choose whole grain foods over processed grain products e.g. brown rice or whole-wheat spaghetti.
  Include dried beans (like pinto beans) and lentils in meals.
  Consume fish about 2-3 times per week.
  Choose lean meats e.g. cuts of beef and pork that end in "loin" such as pork loin and sirloin. Avoid eating the skin of poultry.
  Choose non-fat dairy products such as skim milk, non-fat yogurt and cheese.
  Choose water or calorie-free "diet" drinks instead of regular soft drinks, sweet tea and other sugar-sweetened drinks.
  Choose liquid oils for cooking instead of solid fats that can be high in saturated and trans fats.
  Eat less high calorie snacks and desserts e.g. chips, cookies, cakes, and regular ice cream.
  Avoid overeating

  Exercise
  Doing exercise can lower blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol. Risk of stroke, heart disease and can also be reduced. It helps relieve stress, makes insulin work better, improves blood circulation and keeps joints flexible. After having regular physical activities for some period of time, the heart, muscles and bones will be strengthened.

  Source: American Diabetes Association